Diabetes Mellitus – A Complete Guide

Overview of Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus, A Complete Guide – Diabetes mellitus or Blood sugar is the condition involves the group of diseases in which the body fails to use body sugar or blood glucose. The state leads to high blood sugar level or hyperglycemia. As blood glucose is a vital component to gain energy from the food you consume. The energy is obtained from blood sugar through a hormone (named insulin) release from the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin stores and digests the blood glucose and helps to use the sugar and fats obtained from food.


How do you get diabetes?

In Diabetes body, impairs the ability to produce insulin in enough amount, completely stops to produce or body loses the potential to process blood sugar even in the presence of insulin. Your muscles, tissues and brain need sufficient to function properly, otherwise, lack of nutrient uptake can cause serious health issues like heart stroke, kidney problem or never damage etc.

How to get rid of Diabetes?

There is still not a cure for diabetes. Patients are given oral drug and insulin injection to keep their blood sugar at the normal level. “Prevention is better than cure” so one should manage their blood sugar by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, good diet and daily physical activities to avoid severe health problems.

The article covers the complete detail about diabetes, symptoms of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), types of diabetes, risk factors, its effects on human body and management or treatment of diabetes or blood sugar.

Types of diabetes

There are three major types of diabetes which occur in different conditions


Type 1 Diabetes

In Type 1 diabetes your body may produce little or no insulin to maintain normal blood sugar level. The disease can develop at any age but it is most common in children or adolescents. This occurs due to the attack of your immune system on pancreatic beta cells which impairs the ability of the pancreas to release insulin. To avoid severe health issues or for proper body functioning, patients take insulin injections for normal blood glucose.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is frequently found diabetes in adults, approximately 90% of all diabetes types. The condition, in which your body does not produce or make use of insulin which cause an increase in blood sugar level and your cells do not get enough energy. This state may initially precede to prediabetes, also known as borderline sugar.


If prolonged, prediabetes has the potential to develop type 2 diabetes. The Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, daily exercise of physical activities. Type 2 diabetes patients take medicines or insulin to keep up the normal blood sugar level.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is the type of diabetes which cause high blood due to the release of insulin blocking hormone during pregnancy, can cause problems for both mother and child. However, diabetes only lasts during pregnancy but increase the risk for the child to develop type 2 diabetes.


Early symptoms of Diabetes

Pre diabetes condition or borderline sugar has no prominent symptoms. Whereas, if the condition persists, it can precede to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes develops gradually in several years.

It may or may not show symptoms during progressive stages like darkened armpits, knees, neck and areas, heart issues or blurred vision. Type 1 diabetes can appear in a few weeks may be due to environmental or genetic factors.

Some of the general diabetes symptoms are

  • Frequent thirst
  • Blurred vision or eyesight problem
  • Tingling or Numbness in hands or feet
  • Unusual weight loss
  • Increase in urination
  • Sores formation and frequent infections
  • Fatigue muscles
  • Hunger issues

Causes of Diabetes

There are several causes that can lead to diabetes mellitus disease either due to genetic problem, environmental risks, unhealthy diet or poor lifestyle. The diabetes risk factors are discussed below



Genetic Problem

In both Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes children have a potential threat to inherit diabetes. However, according to research, parents have a greater chance to inherit Type 2 diabetes than Type 1 diabetes. The factor can also be affected by environmental conditions and lifestyle of progeny. Obesity and lack of physical activities can also increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes.

Environmental factors like stress, unhealthy diet, polluted water, Vitamin D deficiency, lack of exercise, destruction of immune cells and contact to enterovirus may also increase the risk of diabetes.


Insulin production or body resistance

Blood sugar can be increased in your body in different cases, first is the lack of insulin production and the second is the body deprives the capability to respond to insulin.

Both of the conditions may lead to diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes body mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Consequently, the body cannot get energy from food and blood sugar level become too high.

In Type 2 diabetes body fails the ability to respond to insulin and cells cannot be fuelled anymore. Therefore, the pancreas releases more insulin to cope up the insulin resistance by the body and in results loose the ability to produce more insulin. The condition is known as prediabetes or borderline sugar.

If the state persists and the patient does not get diagnosed or treated, it can cause Type 2 diabetes. Obesity increases the risk of diabetes by developing insulin resistance in the body. Due to the increase in weight, inflammation in fatty cells disrupts the normal sugar level in blood.

Some women may develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy due to release of insulin blocking hormones. After delivery, both child and mother get back to normal but have a risk of Type 2 diabetes.


Poor lifestyle and Unhealthy diet

Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition can also be the reason for Type 2 diabetes. The excessive food uptake which is rich for fats, cholesterol, and calories can affect your body function in response to insulin. Regular exercise and healthy physical activities help your body to function properly and decreases the risk of diabetes.


Age Factor

Type 2 diabetes risk increases with the rise in age. The disease is common after age 45. However, type 2 diabetes is increasing in children and adolescents these days. Type 1 diabetes can be commonly seen at the age of 30.


Hormonal problem

Intake of harmful medicines or some hormonal diseases can also cause diabetes. Due to the release of insulin-resistant hormones or destruction of insulin-producing cells, the body loses the capability to fuel body cells. As mentioned, in cortisol (a stress hormone) produces in Cushing’s syndrome and production of insulin blocking hormones from the placenta during pregnancy.


Effects of diabetes on the human body

Diabetes may cause serious health issues and if not managed, it can severely damage body organs.

  • In diabetes, you will be prone to skin infection and sores.
  • The diabetic patients can be readily affected to cataracts, bad eyesight, glaucoma.
  • Nerve damage is more common in diabetic patients, the condition called diabetic neuropathy
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) for diabetic patients increases the risk of eye problem, stroke and heart attack. Therefore, you should maintain the normal glucose level, cholesterol and blood pressure to prevent severe issues.
  • The life-threatening problem caused by diabetes is Diabetic Ketoacidosis. With the increase in fats breaks down, the liver starts to process ketones which lower the blood pH.
  • One should control its diabetes and blood pressure to avoid kidney problem or nephropathy.

Treatment / Management of diabetes


The best way to manage diabetes is to keep blood glucose at normal levels and to adopt healthy lifestyle. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin, diabetic diet and exercise. Type 2 diabetes is managed or treated with healthy physical activities and weight loss. The elevated level of diabetes is treated with medicines or insulin injections.


Botanist (MS)

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